Andrew Hugill's 'Papa Sangre' analysis

Analyst's name: 
Andrew Hugill
Year of analysis: 
Composition title: 
Papa Sangre (audio-only game)

This is an attempt at a preliminary analysis of an audio-only game for the iPhone and iPad: Papa Sangre. The paper firstly sets out the context for such a novel choice of subject and argues for the experience of audio-only gaming as worthy of analysis alongside electroacoustic music. It proposes that the only completely satisfactory approach to analysing interactive music, especially in games, would be transdisciplinary. It acknowledges that this paper is far from that ideal. Nevertheless, it then analyses the game up to the end of the third level, by referring to audio files of captured gameplay.

The first analysis is based on critical listening and interaction. Then consideration is given to the semiotic aspects. Finally an attempt is made to apply Brigid Costello’s ‘Pleasure Framework’ to the analysis. The paper concludes by assessing the aesthetic and musical value of an audio-only game within the context of electroacoustic music analysis. 


Analysis files: 

Blythe, Mark and Peter Wright. 2003. ‘From usability to enjoyment’. In Funology: From Usability to Enjoyment. Eds. Blythe, M., Overbeeke, K., Monk, A.F., Wright, P. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, XIII-XIX.

Carroll, J.W. & Thomas, J.C. 1988. ‘Fun’. SIGCHI Bulletin. 19 (3). Dewey, John. 2005 [1934]. Art as Experience. New York: Penguin.

Collins, Karen. 2008. Game Sound: an Introduction to the History, Theory, and Practice of Video Game Music and Sound Design. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Costello, Brigid. 2007. ‘A Pleasure Framework’. Leonardo Journal 40 (4): 370-371.
Gärdenfors, Johnny Friberg Dan. 2004. ‘Audio games: new perspectives on game audio’. Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI

International Conference on Advances in computer entertainment technology.

Jordan, Patrick. 1999. ‘Pleasure with Products: Human factors for body, mind and soul’. In Green W. and Patrick Jordan (eds.) Human Factors in Product Design: Current Practice and Future Trends. London: Taylor & Francis. London. 179-188.

Graham, Gordon. 1994. Art, pleasure, and play’. The Journal of Value Enquiry 28 (2): 217-232.
Monk, A., M. Hassenzahl, et al. 2002. ‘Funology: Designing enjoyment’. Conference on Human Factors and Computing

Systems, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Nattiez, Jean-Jacques. 1990. Music and Discourse. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Nielsen, Jakob. 1999. ‘User Interface Directions for the web’. In Communications of the ACM. 42 (1): 65-72.

Papa Sangre Blog. Available at (accessed 28.01.12)

Papworth, Nigel. 2010. ‘iSpooks: an audio focused game design’. Proceedings of the 5th Audio Mostly Conference: A Conference on Interaction with Sound.

Röber, Niklas and Maic Masuch. 2005. ‘Playing Audio-only Games: a compendium of interacting with virtual, auditory worlds’.

Proceedings of the 2nd DIGRA Gamesconference, Vancouver, Canada. 

Roden, Timothy, Ian Parberry and David Ducrest. 2007. ‘Toward mobile entertainment: A paradigm for narrative-based audio only games.’ Science of Computer Programming. 67 (1): 76-90.

Tagg, Philip. 1999. Introductory Notes to the Semiotics of Music. Unpublished paper. Available at (accessed 28.1.12).

Wiberg, Charlotte. 2007. ‘Usability and fun: an overview of relevant research in the HCI community’. Workshop: Evaluating Affective Interfaces. Umeå University.